Monthly Archives: May 2015

MARTINA NAVRATILVA

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MARTINA NAVRATILVA          MARTINA NAVRATILVA

USA : World Famous Woman Tennis Player

Martina Navratilova  born Martina  pronounced  October 18, 1956 is a retired Czech and American tennis player and coach. Billie Jean King, former World No. 1 player, said in 2006 that Navratilova is “the greatest singles, doubles and mixed doubles player who’s ever lived.” In 2005, Tennis magazine selected her as the greatest female tennis player for the years 1965 through 2005. Tennis historian and journalist Bud Collins has called Navratilova “arguably, the greatest tennis player of all time.

Navratilova was World No. 1 for a total of 332 weeks in singles, and a record 237 weeks in doubles, making her the only player in history to have held the top spot in both singles and doubles for over 200 weeks. She was year-end singles No. 1 seven times, including a record five consecutive years, as well as year-end doubles No. 1 five times, including three consecutive years during which she held the ranking for the entire year. She won 18 Grand Slam singles titles, 31 major women’s doubles titles  and 10 major mixed doubles titles. She reached the Wimbledon singles final 12 times, including nine consecutive years from 1982 through 1990, and won the women’s singles title at Wimbledon a record nine times (surpassing Helen Wills Moody’s eight Wimbledon titles), including a run of six consecutive titles – the best performance by any professional player at a major event. She and King each won 20 Wimbledon titles, an all-time record. Navratilova is one of just three women ever to have accomplished a career Grand Slam in singles, women’s doubles, and mixed doubles  a distinction she shares with Margaret Court and Doris Hart.Navratilova holds the records for most singles titles and for most doubles titles  in the open era. Her record as No.1 in singles  is the most dominant in professional tennis. Over five consecutive seasons, she won 428 of 442 singles matches, averaging fewer than 3 losses per year to 87 wins, for a sustained winning percentage  She holds the best season win-loss record fors. She recorded the longest winning streak in the open era  and three of the six longest winning streaks. She is the only professional player to have won six major singles crowns without the loss of a set. Navratilova, Margaret Court and Maureen Connolly share the record for the most consecutive major singles titles . Navratilova reached 11 consecutive major singles finals, second all-time to Steffi Graf’s 13, and is the only player ever to reach 19 consecutive major semi-finals. Navratilova also won the season-ending WTA Tour Championships for top ranked players a record eight times and made the finals a record 14 times. She is the only person of either sex to have won eight different tournaments at least seven times. She was ranked in the world’s top 10 in singles for a record 20 consecutive years (1975-1994), a span which included 19 years in the top 5, 15 years in the top 3, and 7 years as the world No.1 ranked singles player.In women’s doubles, Navratilova and Pam Shriver won 109 consecutive matches and won all four major titles—the Grand Slam—in 1984. The pair set an all-time record of 79 titles together and tied Louise Brough Clapp’s and Margaret Osborne duPont’s record of 20 major women’s doubles titles as a team. Navratilova also won the WTA Tour Championships doubles title a record 11 times. She is one of only five tennis players all-time to win a multiple slam set in two disciplines, matching Margaret Court, Roy Emerson, Frank Sedgman and Serena Williams. Navratilova took her last major title in 2006, winning the mixed doubles crown at the 2006 US Open, just short of her 50th birthday — 32 years after her first Grand Slam title in 1974.Originally from Czechoslovakia, she was stripped of her citizenship when, in 1975 at the age of 18, she asked the United States for political asylum and was granted temporary residency.  At the time, Navratilova was told by the Czechoslovak Sports Federation that she was becoming too Americanized and that she should go back to school and make tennis secondary. Navratilova became a US citizen in 1981, and on January 9, 2008, she had her Czech citizenship restored. She stated she has not renounced her U.S. citizenship nor does she plan to do so and that the restoration of her Czech citizenship was not politically motivated.Navratilova is a member of the Laureus World Sports Academy. She also serves as the Health and Fitness Ambassador for AARP in an alliance created to help AARP’s millions of members lead active, healthy lives.Navratilova is involved with various charities that benefit animal rights, underprivileged children, and gay rights.

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MOHAMMAD ALI

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MOHAMMAD ALI            MOHAMMAD ALI

USA :World Boxing Champion

Muhammad Ali  January 17, 1942 is an American former professional boxer, generally considered among the greatest heavyweights in the sport’s history. A controversial and polarizing figure during his early career, Ali is now highly regarded for the skills he displayed in the ring plus the values he exemplified outside of it: religious freedom, racial justice and the triumph of principle over expedience. He is one of the most recognized sports figures of the past 100 years, crowned “Sportsman of the Century” by Sports Illustrated and “Sports Personality of the Century”.

Born Cassius Clay, he began training at 12 years old and at the age of 22 won the world heavyweight championship in 1964 from Sonny Liston in a stunning upset. Shortly after that bout, Ali joined the Nation of Islam and changed his name. He converted to Sunni Islam in 1975.

In 1967, three years after winning the heavyweight title, Ali refused to be conscripted into the U.S. military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War. The U.S. government declined to recognize him as a conscientious objector, however, because Ali declared that he would fight in a war if directed to do so by Allah or his messenger . He was eventually arrested and found guilty on draft evasion charges and stripped of his boxing title. He did not fight again for nearly four years—losing a time of peak performance in an athlete’s career. Ali’s appeal worked its way up to the U.S. Supreme Court, where in 1971 his conviction was overturned. The Supreme Court held that, since the appeals board gave no reason for the denial of a conscientious objector exemption to petitioner, it was impossible to determine on which of the three grounds offered in the Justice Department’s letter on which the board had relied. Ali’s actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation.

Ali remains the only three-time lineal World Heavyweight Champion; he won the title in 1964, 1974, and 1978. Between February 25, 1964 and September 19, 1964 Muhammad Ali reigned as the Undisputed Heavyweight Boxing Champion.

Nicknamed “The Greatest”, Ali was involved in several historic boxing matches. Notable among these were the first Liston fight, three with rival Joe Frazier, and one with George Foreman, where he regained titles he had been stripped of seven years earlier.

At a time when most fighters let their managers do the talking, Ali, inspired by professional wrestler “Gorgeous” George Wagner, thrived in — and indeed craved — the spotlight, where he was sometimes provocative, frequently outlandish and almost always entertaining. He controlled most press conferences and interviews, and spoke freely about issues unrelated to boxing. He transformed the role and image of the African American athlete in America by his embrace of racial pride and his willingness to antagonize the white establishment in doing so. In the words of writer Joyce Carol Oates, he was one of the few athletes in any sport to “define the terms of his public reputation”.

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MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

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MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA        MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

Turkey: Builder of Modern Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 19 May 1881 – 10 November 1938 was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning “Father of the Turks”), was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament.

Atatürk was a military officer during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish National Movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns led to victory in the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state. Under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, and women were given equal civil and political rights, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced. His government also carried out an extensive policy of Turkification. The principles of Atatürk’s reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism.

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GOPAL KRISHAN GOKHALE

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GOPAL KRISHAN GOKHALE        GOPAL KRISHAN GOKHALE

Indian: Great Indian Intellectual

Gopal Krishna Gokhale  About this sound pronunciation  9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915 was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society. Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale promoted not only primarily independence from the British Empire but also social reform. To achieve his goals, Gokhale followed two overarching principles: non-violence and reform within existing government institutions.

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Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi

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MAHAVIR PRASAD DWIVEDI        MAHAVIR PRASAD DWIVEDI

India: Famous Indian Hindi Poet

Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi (1864–1938) was a noted Indian Hindi writer. Adhunikkaal, or the Modern period of the Hindi literature is divided into four phases, and he represents the second phase, known as the Dwivedi Yug  after him, which was preceded by the Bharatendu Yug, followed by the Chhayavad Yug  and the Contemporary Period (1937–present).

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ERNEST RUTHERFORT

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ERNEST RUTHERFORT           ERNEST RUTHERFORT

Britain: Great British Scientist

The University of Manchester’s a large research university situated in the city of Manchester, England. Manchester University, as it is commonly known, is a public university formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. and the Victoria University of Manchester . Manchester is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association group, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. The University of Manchester is regarded as a “red brick university”, and was a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century. It formed a constituent part of the federal Victoria University between 1880, when it received its royal charter, and 1903–1904, when it was dissolved.

The main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2012, the university had around 39,000 students and 10,400 staff, making it the largest single-site university in the United Kingdom. The University of Manchester had an income of  millions in which million was from research grants and contracts.

The University of Manchester is ranked 30th in the world by QS World University Rankings.In the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Manchester is ranked 38th in the world and 5th in the UK. It is ranked 52nd in the world and 12th in Europe in the 2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory which includes the Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, Manchester came third in terms of research power and eighth for grade point average quality when including specialist institutions. More students try to gain entry to the University of Manchester than to any other university in the country, with more than 60,000 applications for undergraduate courses. According to the 2012 Highfliers Report, Manchester is the most targeted university by the Top 100 Graduate Employers.

The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are currently among its staff – more than any other British university.

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VISVESVARAYA

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Visvesvaraya              VISVESVARAYA

India: Eminent Indian Engineer

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya  15 Septemb  er 1860 – 14 April 1962 was a notable Indian engineer, scholar, statesman and the Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1918. He is a recipient of the Indian Republic’s highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the British Indian Empire  by King George V for his contributions to the public good. Every year, on his birthday, 15 September is celebrated as Engineer’s Day in India in his memory. He is held in high regard as a pre-eminent engineer of India. He was the chief designer of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad in Telangana, as well as the chief engineer responsible for the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in Mysore.

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Anna Saheb Krave

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Anna Saheb Krave         Anna Saheb Krave

India: Great Indian Regormer

Balwant Pandurang Kirloskar) (1843 – 1885), popularly known as Annasaheb Kirloskar, was a Marathi playwright from Maharashtra, India.

Kirloskar was born on March 31, 1843 at Gurlhosur in Belgaum district to a Karhade Brahmin family. After completing schooling in his native place, at the age of twenty, Annasaheb moved to Pune to pursue further education. His overwhelming interest, however, lay in theatre and he faced parental pressure for his continued disinterest in formal education. His father pressurised him to return to his native Belgaum.

To support himself, Kirloskar then worked for eight years as a school teacher in Belgaum; he subsequently worked for a few years in the police department and then as a clerk in the revenue commissioner’s office. Despite his lack of much formal education, Kirloskar was well-versed in Sanskrit literature.

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MAHAPRABHU CHAITANYA

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 Chaitanya-Mahabrabhu-at-Jagannath             MAHAPRABHU CHAITANYA

India: Avatar of Lord Krishna

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu  Caitanya Mahāprabhu 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534 was a Hindu monk and social reformer from 16th century India. A native of Nabadwip in Bengal, he promoted the worship of God, in his tradition known by the name Krishna. He is venerated by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.

Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga meaning loving devotion to God, based on the philosophy of the Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita, who founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda of Vedanta. Specifically, he worshipped the forms of Krishna, popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra and composed the Siksastakam eight devotional prayers in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as an avatar of Krishna in the mood of Radha, Krishna’s eternal consort.

Chaitanya is also sometimes referred to by the names Gaura  due to his fair complexion, and Nimai due to his being born underneath a Neem tree. There are numerous biographies available from the time giving details of Chaitanya’s life, the most prominent ones being the Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja, the earlier Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa both originally written in Bengali but now widely available in English and other languages, and the Chaitanya Mangala, written by “Lochana Dasa”. These works are in Bengali with some Sanskrit verses interspersed. In addition to these there are other Sanskrit biographies composed by his contemporaries. Chief among them are the works, Sri Chaitanya Charitamritam Mahakavyam by Kavi Karnapura and Sri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamritam by Murari Gupta.

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Swami Rama Tirtha

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SWAMIRAM TIRTH      Swami Rama Tirtha

Swami Rama Tirtha About this sound pronunciation Hindi 22 October 1873 – 27 October 1906 also known as Swami Ram, was an Indian teacher of the Hindu philosophy of Vedanta. He was among the first notable teachers of Hinduism to lecture in the United States, travelling there in 1902, preceded by Swami Vivekananda in 1893 and followed by Paramahansa Yogananda in 1920. During his American tours Swami Rama Tirtha spoke frequently on the concept of ‘practical Vedanta’ and education of Indian youth. He proposed bringing young Indians to American universities and helped establish scholarships for Indian students.RISHI AUROBINDO

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