Monthly Archives: June 2015

GENERAL DE GAULLE

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GENERAL DE GAULLE          GENERAL DE GAULLE

Erence: Famous French President

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle  22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970 was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman. He was the leader of Free France 1940–44 and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic 1944–46. In 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues to influence French politics.

Born in Lille in a devout Catholic and patriotic family, he embraced a military career and graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was a decorated officer of the First World War and came to the fore in the Interwar period as a proponent of mobile armoured divisions. At the beginning of the Second World War, he led an armoured division that inflicted several reverses on the invading German army. Refusing to accept his government’s armistice with Nazi Germany in 1940, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and to continue the fight against Axis powers in his Appeal of 18 June. He led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the undisputed leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government of the Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following the liberation of France. Frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new French Fourth Republic, he retired in early 1946 to write his memoirs.

When the Algerian war was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, and he was elected in the latter role. He managed to keep France together while taking steps to end the war, much to the anger of the Pieds-Noirs  and the military; both previously had supported his return to power to maintain colonial rule. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies. Economically, he pursued a dirigist policy, which included substantial state-directed control over a capitalist economy.

In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle initiated his “Politics of Grandeur”, asserting that France as a major power should not rely on other countries, such as the United States, for its national security and prosperity. To this end, de Gaulle pursued a policy of “national independence” which led him to withdraw from NATO’s military integrated command and to launch an independent nuclear development program that made France the fourth nuclear power. He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the “Anglo-Saxon” American and British and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign Nations and vetoed twice Britain’s entry into the European Community. De Gaulle openly criticised the U.S. intervention in Vietnam and the “exorbitant privilege” of the U.S. dollar, and supported an independent Quebec.

In May 1968, he appeared likely to lose power amidst widespread protests by students and workers, but survived the crisis with backing from the Army and won an election with an increased majority in the Assembly. Nonetheless, de Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization. He died a few months later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises. His War Memoirs, written in the 1950s, quickly became a classic of modern French literature. Many French political parties and figures claim the gaullist legacy.

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RAFI AHMED KIDWAI

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RAFI AHMED KIDWAIRAFI AHMED KIDWAI

India : Indian National Leader and Politician

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai 18 February 1894 – 24 October 1954 was a politician, an Indian independence activist and a socialist, sometimes described as an Islamic socialist.[1] He hailed from Barabanki District of United Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh, in north India.

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DR ZAKIR HUSSAIN

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DR  ZAKIR HUSSAIN            DR  ZAKIR HUSSAIN

India: Third President of India

Zakir Husain 8 February 1897 – 3 May 1969 was the 3rd President of India, from 13 May 1967 until his death on 3 May 1969. An educationist and intellectual, Husain was the country’s first Muslim president. He previously served as Governor of Bihar from 1957 to 1962 and as Vice President of India from 1962 to 1967.
Zakir Husain was also co-founder of Jamia Milia Islamia, serving as its Vice Chancellor from 1928. Under Husain, Jamia became closely associated with the Indian freedom movement. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest national honour, in 1963.

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RAFI AHMED KIDWAI

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RAFI AHMED KIDWAI         RAFI AHMED KIDWAI

India : Indian National Leader and Politician

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai 18 February 1894 – 24 October 1954 was a politician, an Indian independence activist and a socialist, sometimes described as an Islamic socialist.[1] He hailed from Barabanki District of United Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh, in north India.

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GOVIND BALLABH PANT

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GOVIND BALLABH PANT        GOVIND BALLABH PANT

India ; Great Indian Administrator

Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant  10 September 1887 – 7 March 1961 was a veteran Indian freedom fighter and politician who alongside Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru was a key figure in the movement for India’s independence and subsequently was a pivotal figure in the independent Indian Government. He was one of the foremost political leaders from Uttarakhand then in United Provinces and of the movement to establish Hindi as the official language of India. Today there are atleast a dozen Indian hospitals, educational institutes and foundations named after him across India. A prominent statue of Mr. Pant stands in front of the Indian Parliament in New Delhi. The city and Airport of Pantnagar in Northern India is also named after Mr. Pant. Today Pantnagar has integrated industrial estates which houses some of India’s largest companies such as Tata, Bajaj, Nestle, Dabur and Vedanta Resources.

Mr. Pant received India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1957, an honour which has been shared with luminaries such as Nelson Mandela, Mother Teresa and various Indian Nobel Laureates.

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UDHAM SINGH

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UDHAM SINGH         UDHAM SINGH

India ; Famous Indian Martyr

Udham Singh 26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940 was an Indian revolutionary, best known for assassinating Michael O’Dwyer on 13 March 1940 in what has been described as an avenging of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre. Singh is a prominent figure of the Indian independence struggle. He is sometimes referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh . A district Udham Singh Nagar of Uttarakhand is named after him.

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RAM PRASAD BISMIL

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RAM  PRASAD BISMIL         RAM  PRASAD BISMIL

India : Great Indian Revolutionary

Ram Prasad Bismil 11 June 1897 – 19 December 1927 was an Indian revolutionary who participated in Mainpuri conspiracy of 1918, and the Kakori conspiracy of 1925, and struggled against British imperialism. As well as being a freedom fighter, he was also a patriotic poet and wrote in Hindi and Urdu using the pen names Ram, Agyat and Bismil. But, he became popular with the last name “Bismil” only. He was associated with Arya Samaj where he got inspiration from Satyarth Prakash, a book written by Swami Dayanand Saraswati. He also had a confidential connection with Lala Har Dayal through his guru Swami Somdev, a preacher of Arya Samaj.

Bismil was one of the founder members of the revolutionary organisation Hindustan Republican Association. Bhagat Singh praised him as a great poet-writer of Urdu and Hindi, who had also translated the books Catherine from English and Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot from Bengali. Several inspiring patriotic verses are attributed to him; these include the poem Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna.

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RASH BEHARI BOSE

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RASH BEHARI BOSE       RASH BEHARI BOSE

India : Great Indian Revolutionary

Rashbehari Bose  25 May 1886 – 21 January 1945 was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the key organisers of the Ghadar Revolution and later, the Indian National Army.

Bose was born in Subaldaha village, Burdwan, in the province of Bengal. He was educated in Chandannagar, where his father, Vinodebehari Bose, was stationed. He later earned degrees in the medical sciences as well as in Engineering from France and Germany.

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T.S.Eliot

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T.S.Eliot        T.S.Eliot

England : Britist Poet and Nobel Laureate

Thomas Stearns Eliot OM 26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965 usually known as T. S. Eliot, was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and “one of the twentieth century’s major poets”. He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, to the old Yankee Eliot family descended from Andrew Eliot, who migrated to Boston, Massachusetts from East Coker, England in the 1660s. He emigrated to England in 1914 at age 25 settling, working and marrying there. He was eventually naturalised as a British subject in 1927 at age 39, renouncing his American citizenship.

Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock which is seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement. It was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land  The Hollow Men  Ash Wednesday  and Four Quartets. He is also known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral . He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, “for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.

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